This multi-item question investigates attitudes toward Europe by asking respondents whether they are afraid of several potential consequences of integration. On average, about 60% of the citizens surveyed are afraid of the four listed consequences of integration. The problem about which respondents worry the most is the possible loss of jobs and social security (64.5%). This overall figure is mainly driven by Spain (87.9%), a country suffering from very high unemployment —especially among young people—and whose respondents tend to be afraid that further integration might exacerbate this problem. Spain is followed by Italy and France, with respectively 70% and 69.6% of respondents claiming to be afraid.
The trend is similar for the remaining three items. Spanish and French respondents are the most afraid also when it comes to the share of national income being paid into the EU budget, the weakening of national democracy, and the loss of national identity and culture. Contrary to the Eurosceptic parties’ narrative, however, this last fear is the smaller of the four among respondents (52.8%). The only two countries where the proportion of afraid respondents is rather high are France (62.6%) and Spain (63.6%).