«The new tools of enforcing "discipline", austerity and control are widely recognized to be counterproductive in their effects. But they are the only tools the EU, driven by a constant and no doubt realistic fear of the disasters the "markets" may inflict upon its stability, has at its disposal and which are within the reach of the intergovernmental making of treaties between EU member states»
To investigate the REScEU fourth divide, between integration and autonomy, we asked respondents whether and to what extent they would like to see more or less European integration, by positioning themselves on a scale from 0 to 10. Unsurprisingly, 21% of respondents choose the middle position on the scale. Interestingly, however, a majority of respondents (55%) locate themselves in the upper half of the scale—indicating an overall positive attitude towards further integration—while only 24% pick values between 0 and 4. The extreme positions 0 and 10 are chosen, respectively, by 8.7% and 15.3% of the sample, showing a certain degree of polarization on this topic.
In Italy (24%) and Spain (25%), a plurality of respondents locate themselves on the integrationist end of the scale (10). Average values are 6.5 in Italy and 6.9 in Spain, indicating a more positive evaluation of integration than in all the remaining countries. In France and in Sweden, on the other hand, roughly one respondent out of ten claims that the integration process has already gone too far (0). Germany has the most balanced distribution among the countries surveyed, with an average value of 5.5. Finally, the United Kingdom is the only country in which the share of respondents with a negative attitude towards European integration (0-4) is higher than the share of supporters of further integration (6-10).
Photo Credits CC Eduardo Sánchez