The issue of cross-national solidarity in the EU came to the fore 10 years ago, when the sovereign debt crisis unveiled the big inequalities that exist between member states. Back then, mistrust, more than solidarity, prevailed. This time, with the economic aftershocks of the pandemic, the music seems to have changed.
«The debate over the reform of the ESM has just begun. While a broad consensus exists on its transformation into a EMF, on its future role as backstop for the SRF, and on a greater involvement in the management of the financial assistance programmes, other substantive questions are still to be settled»